Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

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cendien
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Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Mon Jul 20, 2009 5:52 pm

Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

This FAQ and information page is meant to inform the reader about the Early Decision (ED) and Early Action (EA) admission programs that many schools offer, including the dates required for these applications, the advantages and disadvantages to these types of applications, and factors an applicant should consider before opting for one of these choices. It is highly recommended that anyone considering the Early Decision option read and thoroughly consider the potential disadvantages to this choice before submitting an ED application. I hope this helps anyone who is considering one or both of these options when applying, and good luck to everyone!

Note: As this is an early version of this article, if anyone has any additions to the information provided herein, suggestions for more content, or questions regarding the process, please post them and I will update the article accordingly, providing credit where due. Also, please forgive the poor image quality. All I currently have at my disposal is MS Paint!


1. What are the Early Action and Early Decision options, and what is the difference between the two?
The Early Action and Early Decision application options are generally offered by law schools as a way of applying early on in the application cycle, and guaranteeing a decision and response to the application earlier than is normal for many schools. Each (when offered) have their own set deadlines for filing your application and going complete, and all have guaranteed response dates by which the school will inform you of their decision (though sometimes they may defer your application to the general applicant pool). Normally, the deadline for submitting the application is in late October or early November, and nearly all schools will respond by the end of December (though this is not universally true; see the question below for more details).

There is one significant difference between the two options: Early Action is a non-binding application which simply guarantees a response by a certain date. Early Decision, however, requires that the applicant agree toa binding commitment to the school s/he is applying to, guaranteeing that if accepted, s/he will matriculate to the school in the following school year. There are occasionally additional requirements for this type of application, which are also mentioned below (and appear in the table provided). One is heavily encouraged to research the requirements of the ED option at any schools s/he is considering this type of application at.


2. How do I go about applying Early Action or Early Decision?
Most schools have a checkbox on their application where you can indicate specifically which type of application you would like to submit. For example, the Early Decision option at Michigan appears on the application like this:

Image

It should also be noted that you will normally also be required to submit an additional signed document declaring your intention and understanding of the Early Decision option. Sometimes this comes as an additional segment of the application itself, while other schools may require you submit an additional document. Other times, there are additional stipulations which you must agree to (which are discussed in another question to follow).


3. Do all schools offer these options?
No, not all schools have Early Decision or Early Action options. Many have one or the other, though few (if any) have both. I have compiled a list of the top 100 schools (as per USNWR rankings) and included the basic information for each school (including due dates, type of applications offered, decision dates, and additional notes). Below you will find a screenshot of the T30, and you may click here or on the image for the full spreadsheet (hosted by Google Docs).
Image


4. Aside from the binding agreement, are there other stipulations of the Early Application or Early Decision agreement?
The Early Application option generally does not have any further stipulation. It merely serves as a convenient way for applicants and admissions departments to get notice of their decision earlier than would otherwise be normal. It is possible that the school may require an earlier deposit deadline, though this is unlikely. It would be a good idea to check each school's website for this information.

The Early Decision option, however, often comes with at least a few requirements. First, it is a binding agreement, so the applicant must commit to attending if accepted, and is normally required to withdraw all other applications within a given timeframe (5 days, for example). Other schools may require that you write an additional essay indicating why the school is your first choice (Cardozo does this). Michigan requires that students who apply through the ED program start their law school career the following summer (a semester before the normal start date). Applicants are also generally not allowed to defer their acceptance to the next year when accepted through Early Decision - an option that may exist otherwise under extenuating circumstances.


5. What are the advantages of each option?
Early Action offers several concrete advantages over a regular cycle application. First, because the application is coming in so early in the year (before a majority of the applications are submitted), the class has not yet been filled at all. There is evidence that schools generally offer more acceptances during the beginning of the cycle before the class has been filled and applicants have begun to accept schools' offers (--LinkRemoved-- provides decision date graphs which show, nearly universally, that more applicants are accepted at the beginning of the cycle rather than later in the cycle). The later one applies, the more filled the class will become, and (generally) fewer spots are available, increasing the competitiveness of applications. Second, an Early Action application will result in an early decision (and oftentimes an early scholarship award). This can be very helpful to students who either wish to select their law school early and begin making plans as soon as possible, or it can be helpful in negotiating scholarship offers, among other uses. For non-traditional applicants, this option provides an ample amount of time to decide where they may have to move to and how to accomodate such a transition (moving a family, finding a new job for a significant other, etc).

Early Decision offers similar advantages, though it does not allow the applicant any freedom in choosing where to attend (if accepted). First, (and maybe most significantly) Early Decision indicates to the application committee that their school is truly your first choice, and that if accepted, you would definitely attend. To the school, this means that in accepting you they have a yield ratio 1:1 for all ED applicants accepted - except in the circumstance that the applicant does not end up going to law school at all. This matters to the school as yield percentage is a factor used in most rating formulas (a factor the school is not likely to admit, but nonetheless considers). Also, if the admissions committee sees an ED applicant which stands out for some particular reason (high LSAT, high GPA, diverse background, cured cancer), they have a surefire way to getting that applicant into their school. To the applicant, this all means that an ED application is sometimes given a boost in consideration (though how much of a boost is a hotly debated topic - search the forums to see more on this), as the ad-comms are aware that you have chosen their school as your first choice - and flattery rarely hurts! For "splitters" or borderline applicants, an ED application may be a good way to increase your chances of acceptance at a school. Second, the option allows the applicant more time to figure out their transition to law school, as does the EA option. This option, however, is not without its drawbacks.


6. What are the disadvantages?
Early Action has very few (if any) real disadvantages. Really the only thing negative about this type of application is the sometimes difficulty of getting it submitted and complete by the deadlines. These types of applications almost always prevent the application from taking any LSAT after the Sept/Oct test date, so taking the LSAT in Dec or Feb is generally out of the question unless one is placed into the general decision pool after consideration under the EA program. Early Action also prevents one's first semester grades from being considered in the application, and for applicants who are hoping that said semester would bring up their GPA in a significant way may be at a disadvantage with an EA application. These disadvantages, however, are fairly small compared to the advantages of submitting an EA application (no strings attached!).

Early Decision is a different matter entirely. There can be significant disadvantages to this application type, and it is strongly recommended that anyone considering this option careful and thoroughly review the disadvantages. First, because this is a binding application, if accepted to your ED school, you CANNOT accept an offer from another school (regardless of the circumstances). It does not matter if you received more merit aid from a different school - you have committed to your ED choice and there really is no escaping this reality. This brings us to the second disadvantage: if you are strongly in need of scholarships or financial aid, an ED application may be the wrong choice. Being that the school is all but guaranteed your matriculation, they are not exactly in a position to attempt to persuade you to attend through the use of monetary offers. While most schools claim to evaluate ED applicants exactly the same as their regular applicants in scholarship consideration, that does not prevent another school from making a better offer that you cannot A) accept, or B) leverage against your ED school. One must be absolutely sure that they are committed to attending their ED school before applying, because once it is done, there really isn't a backing out (aside from flat out not attending law school). Third, for an applicant who is more of an auto-admit or even just better than borderline accept, it is not likely a wise choice to choose the ED option. There is not much evidence to support the idea that for well off applicants, ED provides any significant boost, and it may hurt your chances for merit awards. If you within the numerical range (GPA and LSAT) of the school, and you are not 100% sure you want to attend, or even think you may change your mind, there is little good reason to lock yourself into attending and potentially passing up other, occasionally better offers. The same disadvantages discussed above in the Early Action paragraph also apply here.


7. Should I apply to other schools along with an Early Decision application?
Yes - Early Decision and Early Action applications do not by any means guarantee acceptance (even for students comfortably within or above the school's median numerical ranges. Though your acceptance may be very likely, it is still reccomended that you apply to other schools in case your first choice doesn't turn out in your favor.


8. Do you have any suggestions for potential EA or ED applicants?
As stated many times, before submitting an ED application, make sure that you are 100% committed to that school and have done the appropriate research into the school's specific policies and requirements. If the school requires you to start a semester early during the summer (as Michigan does), you should be aware of this and able to make the transition at that point in time.

In terms of the actual applications, it is probably a good idea to also submit an essay pertaining to why said school is your first choice. Cardozo requires this of all its ED applicants, whereas Mich, Penn and Duke explicitly offer this as an additional (optional) essay, and although schools like UVA don't specifically ask for them, dean's from other schools have indicated that they are receptive to this type of essay when submitted. This takes an extra step in showing the school just how committed and knowledgable you are.

Some have suggested visiting the school you are applying to (especially when its an ED application). If you are going to commit to the school completely, it is a good idea to have seen and experienced the school firsthand. While this may be difficult and expensive, it is a very good idea if you are not 100% sure about an ED app.


9. Is EA or ED right for me?
This is a very personal question and one which cannot be answered by anyone but yourself. However, if you answer "yes" to any of the following questions, I would suggest either not submitting an ED app, or at least thoroughly reconsidering the option.
    -Are you unsure of which school you want to attend?
    -Will merit scholarships and financial aid be a major factor in your decision on where to attend?
    -Are you within or above the school's median numerical ranges (GPA, LSAT)?
    -Would you regret having to turn down acceptances from other schools which may accept you?
There are important considerations when applying ED. While it can be a valuable tool in the admissions process, one should be fully aware of the implications of such an application before submitting your app.





Code: Select all

Future updates and potential changes may include:
-better formatting of lists within the answers (like the different advantages and disadvantages)
-inclusion of an example picture of a graph from chiashu showing acceptance dates
-inclusion of an example picture from LSN showing ED applicant data from random school
-add info on Law School Predictor's new ED consideration
-more questions:
  *What about September LSAT retakers?
  *Can you refuse an ED offer?  (This one is answered in a post below, but I plan to add it to the OP)
  *Do other schools know you've applied ED? Can this hurt your chances at other schools?

Please let me know if you have suggestions and I'll add to this list!
Last edited by cendien on Tue Aug 11, 2009 4:06 pm, edited 5 times in total.

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rondemarino
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby rondemarino » Mon Jul 20, 2009 5:53 pm

tagged

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cendien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Mon Jul 20, 2009 6:07 pm

I should also note that while I saw that YCRev may be submitting a similar article, I figured that I was interested enough and familiar enough with the subject to try my hand at it. I am more than willing to collaborate with anyone, as others may be doing on other articles.

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jackassjim
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby jackassjim » Mon Jul 20, 2009 9:16 pm

Thanks for the great article. Your work is much appreciated.

If you've hit the ceiling of what you can do with MS Paint, try Paint.net, a free image editing software that you can get at: getpaint.com

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cendien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 3:53 am

Thanks! I actually have Paint.net and Photoshop on my home computer, but I wasn't at home while posting that and taking those images. I may update them later.

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2010trojan
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby 2010trojan » Tue Jul 21, 2009 6:04 am

Thanks so much for this post! I was going to search the ED/EA policies of all of my target schools, but you did it for me. AWESOME. The advice is helpful, too.

One question: when it says "No holds or deferrals" (i.e. NYU's ED), I'm assuming it means they will either reject you or accept you by their self-imposed date (late December for most, it seems?). This doesn't make much sense to me; what would happen to an applicant that would have been wait listed had he/she applied non-ED? Forcing the ad-comms to either accept or deny an applicant that would otherwise be wait listed seems dangerous for the applicant, as I'd assume they'd deny when in doubt. Could this be another potential disadvantage to applying ED?

Just an observation: I love the "if you answer "yes" to any, you should reconsider EDing" at the end, but I'm not sure "Are you within the school's median numerical ranges (GPA, LSAT)?" should be one. If you have a school you REALLY want (pretty much a given since you're thinking of applying ED), having numbers that are slightly below, at, or even slightly above median isn't a valid reason NOT to ED. In terms of numbers, only auto-admits shouldn't ED, and having numbers slightly below, at, or slightly above median does not make you auto-admit status. Just my 2-cents!

Again, thanks for the post; hope you win something.

edit: While re-reading my post, I realized that "no holds or deferrals" could have meant "if accepted, you can't defer attending for a year" as you mentioned in the post. If that's the case, then my bad. I suppose it was just a bit confusing since the comments for some of the other ED schools say "may hold until regular cycle". If my original question is valid, uh, forget about this edit.

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missvik218
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby missvik218 » Tue Jul 21, 2009 8:10 am

Thanks for all of the info, as a splitter ED seems like a good idea in a lot of ways but I'm also concerned about $$. I still have some serious thinking to do before I apply, this article has helped put some things into a better perspective.

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cendien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 11:32 am

I'm glad this post is helping people so quickly!

2010trojan -
You are correct on you first question. What I meant was that they will not hold the application into their regular admission cycle. However, after reviewing the schools on the list who I marked as "No hold/deferral", I realize that I messed up on NYU - they will hold some applications for review in the regular admission group. UCLA's policy, however, does not state that they will do this. Their site says:

Applicants to the Early Decision Program will be admitted, waitlisted, or denied admission. If an applicant is denied to the Early Decision Program, the decision is final for fall 2009. There will not be a re-review of the file during the regular admissions cycle. Denied and waitlisted applicants can continue to consider other law schools.


This appears to mean that they don't offer a hold (though maybe they do this, but it is not stated anywhere). Normally, they only offer admissions, denials and waitlist offers. If anyone has experience with this, I would happily update the chart. I have already done so for NYU and will update the screenshot in a minute.

As far as I know, NO schools offer a deferral option (postponing acceptance a year) when applying through ED. This is explicit on most of the websites.

On your observation - I agree that "Within schools median ranges" may not be a reason not to apply ED, but for stronger candidates I would advise even more consideration into locking oneself into a binding agreement when they may well be accepted without the potential boost. I don't mean to say that candidates in those ranges shouldn't us the ED option - just that they should more heavily consider those other questions before committing to that binding agreement.

Hope that clears things up! Thanks for catching the NYU thing.

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2010trojan
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby 2010trojan » Tue Jul 21, 2009 11:44 am

Thanks for the reply. When they say "may hold until regular cycle", aren't they saying they'd put you in the normal cycle after reviewing your file (and determining that you weren't worthy of an accept or deny)? So what's the difference between being put on hold (Columbia ED policy) and being put on a wait list (UCLA ED policy)?

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Ken
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby Ken » Tue Jul 21, 2009 11:46 am

Cendien,

This is a great and very informative article for TLS and the contest. Also it is very timely as I am already starting to see some posts regarding ED and EA so thanks for creating an article that should be able to address all of the major questions. I appreciate your making TLS a better place!

Cheers,

Ken

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cendien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 12:53 pm

Thanks very much Ken! Glad to contribute!

2010-
Yes - "may hold" means that an ED application may sometimes be deferred to the normal cycle after ED/EA review. I have not yet gone through this process, so I cannot speak from experience here, but this is what I have gathered. The difference between a hold to regular cycle and a waitlist, from what I can tell, seems to be that a hold means that they havent rendered the decision, but are going to try to do so (likely with an accept/deny) during the regular admission cycle. A waitlist is very different in that they have decided NOT to review your file further until they have admitted everyone they want to admit and need to start filling the extra places in the class with waitlisted applicants.

In terms of how this affects your chances, I am not really sure. I would probably rather receive a "hold/deferral" rather than a waitlist, just because it means I might still get a favorable decision back in a more timely manner. Waitlist means you may be riding that out until June or July.

It should also be noted that just because they held the app for the normal cycle doesn't mean they can't or won't waitlist you during that cycle.

My assumption on all of this, though, is that a vast majority of EA/ED applicants are going to receive a fairly final decision (accept/deny/waitlist) by the end of December (or whatever date your school specifies). I imagine that very very few applications get pulled over to the main app cycle. Otherwise, EA wouldn't really be all that much of an assurance.

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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby sapien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 4:13 pm

cendien wrote:One must be absolutely sure that they are committed to attending their ED school before applying, because once it is done, there really isn't a backing out (aside from flat out not attending law school).


Does this mean that if one is accepted, s/he can refuse to attend any school that year and still apply next year to different schools? Or would breaking the ED contract go on your record somehow and affect your chances at other schools?

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cendien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby cendien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 5:27 pm

sapien wrote:Does this mean that if one is accepted, s/he can refuse to attend any school that year and still apply next year to different schools? Or would breaking the ED contract go on your record somehow and affect your chances at other schools?


I should probably add in a section on this question, though to be honest I am not 100% sure on this answer. I imagine it varies by school to one degree or another. From what the contract statements say and another website I have found:

The short answer is 'Yes, it would be apparent to other schools that you did this': The binding agreement that one signs when applying ED normally states that if accepted, the applicant must withdraw all other applications within a given period of time, and agree not to initiate any more applications at any other schools (alongside the agreement to matriculate at said school the following year/summer). Most of these statements also indicate that if this agreement is broken (you don't withdraw, you continue to apply to other schools, etc), they will revoke your admission to their school. For example:

NYU ED Page wrote:If admitted, you must enroll at the Law School and immediately withdraw all applications at other law schools regardless of your status. Failure to honor these commitments will result in New York University School of Law revoking its offer of admission.

Columbia ED Page wrote:Candidates applying on an Early Decision basis commit themselves to matriculate at Columbia if admitted. Successful Early Decision candidates may not initiate any new law school applications and must withdraw other applications once notified of their Columbia acceptance in December. Failure to honor these commitments will result in Columbia revoking its offer of admission.


However, this is where the explanation of breaking the agreement ends. There is absolutely nothing stopping you from applying to another school after this occurs (either that year or any other). Collegedata.com (an undergrad focused site, but with info on ED applications in general) says this:

collegedata.com wrote:What's more, once you are accepted by the early decision school you may not apply elsewhere and must withdraw any applications already submitted. If, however, the early decision school does not meet your financial need, even after you explain your financial situation to admissions staff, you're free to apply elsewhere.


I would take this advice with a grain of salt. Although you are not actively prevented from applying to other schools in the same year, admissions counselors from your school will almost definitely release information on who has been admitted via early decision to other schools, who will often times withdraw those applicants automatically from their own lists. Yale's admissions department has been explicit about this in their blog:

Generally speaking, Yale makes admissions decisions later than most schools, and almost always after the ED decision date at most schools. Further, we honor ED enrollment commitments made by applicants. So, when we receive the list of names from our peer schools of people who have been admitted ED (yes, we get this information), we automatically withdraw those applicants from further consideration. From our point of view, if an applicant has already decided that his or her first choice is another school, has been admitted to that school, and has made a commitment to attend that school, it doesn't make sense to continue to use our resources to evaluate their application.


So while you can still apply to other schools, after that information goes out, it is unlikely that you will receive many (if any) other offers from other schools - at least during that year.

In terms of what you can do during other application years, I doubt that your ED outcome will affect the other years in a very significant manner. If, for whatever reason, you were accepted ED somewhere but had to withdraw, and were not accepted anywhere else, you could likely reapply the following year.

I would strongly recommend against doing this, as it can only have negative consequences. If financial aid is an issue, it is heavily suggested that you avoid applying ED anywhere, as it will severely limit your options.

I hope this answers your question well enough! If anyone has withdrawn an ED offer after being accepted and then reapplied or attempted to go elsewhere, anecdotal evidence would be much appreciated. It is my understanding that such a scenario rarely (if ever) happens.

sapien
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby sapien » Tue Jul 21, 2009 11:37 pm

Wow that was super-thorough. Thank you so much!

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Shaggier1
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby Shaggier1 » Fri Jul 24, 2009 4:21 pm

Wow that was super-thorough. Thank you so much!


Yea, seriously. This is the sort of thing that makes TLS such a wonderful place.

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corresponding Cor
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby corresponding Cor » Fri Jul 24, 2009 6:44 pm

Awesome post. Very informative.
I have one question, though: Do all the law schools you apply to see that you EA'd or ED'd to a specific school, or do they only know that you applied there?

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YCrevolution
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby YCrevolution » Sat Jul 25, 2009 2:49 pm

..

roadkilllaw
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby roadkilllaw » Sat Jul 25, 2009 3:13 pm

Do lower ranked schools do ED/EA too?

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corresponding Cor
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby corresponding Cor » Sat Jul 25, 2009 3:43 pm

YCrevolution wrote:
corresponding Cor wrote:Awesome post. Very informative.
I have one question, though: Do all the law schools you apply to see that you EA'd or ED'd to a specific school, or do they only know that you applied there?

Other law schools won't know you've applied EA or ED to another school.

Oh, great. Do they know to which other schools you've applied? For some reason, I was under the impression they did.

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YCrevolution
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby YCrevolution » Sat Jul 25, 2009 3:49 pm

..

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YCrevolution
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby YCrevolution » Sat Jul 25, 2009 4:34 pm

..

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YCrevolution
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby YCrevolution » Sat Jul 25, 2009 4:57 pm

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operaden
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby operaden » Sat Jul 25, 2009 5:40 pm

What if you received the ED decision from two schools, or three schools, on the same day? For example, what if, while you're receiving an ED acceptance call from one institution, an email arrives with an ED acceptance from another? Or two emails arrive in the same minute? To which school are you bound?

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YCrevolution
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby YCrevolution » Sat Jul 25, 2009 5:41 pm

..

operaden
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Re: Early Decision and Early Action FAQ's and Information

Postby operaden » Sat Jul 25, 2009 6:01 pm

Is that an ABA or LSAC rule? Or school rule? I've never seen that rule spelled out - that one can only submit one ED application.




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