Okay the main point here is the confusion between "routinely" and "never". C is wrong because the first statement is not about some particular rules, but rather about violations of ANY rules. The conclusion is misinterpreting "routinely" for "sometimes"; thus, if rules sometimes go unpunished then chaos results. Therefore, a society should never allow its rules to go unpunished. To remove the chaos, you would remove the routine unpunishment of violations. THis does not mean that you "never" allow violations to be unpunished. You just have the remove the "routine" via contrapositive theory.
NOte: I havent taken teh LSAT yet, so I don't know if the above answser is correct. HOwever, since no one else has replied, I figure it wouldn't hurt to give you my opinion. Worst, someone who has scored a 160+ will be prompted to correct me and help you. Thanks.
In this question the author argues at first that chaos results from "routine"
Hello everyone, could some of you 160+ people be so kind as to explain this question to me.
If violations of any of a society's explicit rules routinely go unpunished, then that society's people will be left without moral guidance. Because people who lack moral guidance will act in many different ways, chaos results. Thus, a society ought never to allow any of its explicit rules to be broken with impunity.
The reasoning in the argument is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that the argument:
A- takes for granted that a society will avoid chaos as long as none of its explicit rules are routinely violated with impunity
B- fails to consider that the violated rules might have been made to prevent problems that would not arise even if the rules were removed
C- infers, from the claim that the violation of some particular rules will lead to chaos, that the violation of any rule will lead to chaos
D- confuses the routine nonpunishment of violations of a rule with sometimes not punishing violations of the rule
E- takes for granted that all of society's explicit rules result in equally serious consequences when broken
I see how going from the first assertion "If violations of any of a society's explicit rules routinely go unpunished" to "Thus, a society ought never to allow any of its explicit rules to be broken with impunity" seems a leap, but I initially chose C. The correct answer is D... Any comments/help is appreciated.
A) seems right to me but I don't know I'm often wrong with this test. I thought it was getting at that chaos is necessary for for a lack of moral guidance but a lack of moral guidance is only sufficient. Chaos can result on it's own or by another condition.