## Cause and effect questions

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Nicolena.

Posts: 322
Joined: Tue Dec 04, 2012 12:44 am

### Cause and effect questions

When I review, I'm noticing I'm really struggling with cause and effect (with flaw, strengthen and weaken). For some reason I don't catch that this is the issue. Example - pt 46.2.19

Do you believe reading the powerscore chapter on cause and effect would benefit me? I've never read powerscore, but I have read the trainer and MLSAT. Are there chps I should be reviewing in there again to help with this?

Also, would the cause and effect Cambridge packet be helpful? I have all of the regular LR by type packets from Cambridge.

Thanks!

dowu

Posts: 8300
Joined: Wed Mar 28, 2012 9:47 pm

### Re: Cause and effect questions

Manhattan made it easy for me. Re-read that chapter.

Post specific questions with your reasoning so we can see why your reasoning is in error.

KDLMaj

Posts: 145
Joined: Mon Jun 30, 2008 4:07 pm

### Re: Cause and effect questions

+1 to the previous poster. For some people, the problem is recognizing the causal argument. For others it's finding the right answer afterwards. For what it's worth:

When you walk into a flaw or weakening question- you should actively remind yourself to look for a causal argument. They live in str/weaken questions, and they vacation often in flaw (it's common to have 1 causal flaw question on any given test). The causal argument is almost always mentioned explicitly in the conclusion (and you'll notice that the classic causal setup is: X happens. Y happens. Therefore X caused Y) Look for language like: is the result of, brought about by, caused by, led to, etc in the conclusion.

As far as answers go, the assumption in any causal argument is always that three things didn't happen:
-There was NO alternative cause (most likely)
-The causal argument is NOT reversed (Y didn't cause X)
-The two aren't just coincidence

A flaw answer will either have some language about causation, or it'll say "overlooks/ignores/etc the possibility that <alternative cause/reversal/coincidence>".

A weakening answer will either present an alternative cause, show that the result happened before the supposed cause, or give some other indication that the two are unrelated.

A strengthening answer will either rule out an alternative cause, give you additional direct evidence that the cause can bring about the effect, or rule out that the supposed cause happened before the result. (As with all strengthening question- if you have an answer in the negative and are unsure of whether it works or not- try the negation test).

If you're having a hard time ID'ing these arguments, just go find all of the previous causal stims you've seen and read through all of them as a group a few times. It helps solidify the pattern.

Nicolena.

Posts: 322
Joined: Tue Dec 04, 2012 12:44 am

### Re: Cause and effect questions

Thanks guys!

This has been very helpful. I'm going to review this chapter again in MLSAT and try to look for your "setup"

KDLMaj wrote:+1 to the previous poster. For some people, the problem is recognizing the causal argument. For others it's finding the right answer afterwards. For what it's worth:

When you walk into a flaw or weakening question- you should actively remind yourself to look for a causal argument. They live in str/weaken questions, and they vacation often in flaw (it's common to have 1 causal flaw question on any given test). The causal argument is almost always mentioned explicitly in the conclusion (and you'll notice that the classic causal setup is: X happens. Y happens. Therefore X caused Y) Look for language like: is the result of, brought about by, caused by, led to, etc in the conclusion.

As far as answers go, the assumption in any causal argument is always that three things didn't happen:
-There was NO alternative cause (most likely)
-The causal argument is NOT reversed (Y didn't cause X)
-The two aren't just coincidence

A flaw answer will either have some language about causation, or it'll say "overlooks/ignores/etc the possibility that <alternative cause/reversal/coincidence>".

A weakening answer will either present an alternative cause, show that the result happened before the supposed cause, or give some other indication that the two are unrelated.

A strengthening answer will either rule out an alternative cause, give you additional direct evidence that the cause can bring about the effect, or rule out that the supposed cause happened before the result. (As with all strengthening question- if you have an answer in the negative and are unsure of whether it works or not- try the negation test).

If you're having a hard time ID'ing these arguments, just go find all of the previous causal stims you've seen and read through all of them as a group a few times. It helps solidify the pattern.

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