Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

ExcelBaller
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Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby ExcelBaller » Mon Nov 14, 2011 10:59 pm

This is my interpretation of the answer choices so far. Do you have time to think about it? Feel free to add different characteristics of LR answer choices. Many posts tell you to figure out WHY the answer choice is right or wrong. This may help some people figure out how to do this.

-Must be True
Right Answer: The answer can be proven by the information in the stimulus.
4 Wrong Answers: Will miss the scope of the argument, exaggerate or go to far, bring in new information outside of the stimulus

- Main Point
Right Answer: Describes the authors conclusion conclusion entirely
4 Wrong Answers: Will miss the scope of the argument, will have similar content as the stimulus but not encompass argument as a whole

- Weaken
Right Answer: Will attack the conclusion or underlying assumption so the conclusion does not have to be true. Maybe add another possibility that could make the conclusion possible
4 Wrong Answers: Will strengthen or will not affect the conclusion in the argument

- Strengthen
Right Answer: Will give credibility to the conclusion maybe take out any other possibility for conclusion being drawn
4 Wrong Answers: Will weaken or not affect the conclusion

- Sufficient Assumption
Right Answer: Will make the conclusion 100% possible
4 Wrong Answers: Will be beyond the scope, will make the sufficient for necessary mistake

- Necessary Assumption
Right Answer: It is a requirement by the author that ties the premise to the conclusion in the argument. What MUST be true for the conclusion to be true?
4 Wrong Answers: Will take a sufficient premise and restate it

- Point at Issue
Right Answer: Will describe in whole what they are arguing about in broader terms
4 Wrong Answers: Will miss the scope or get tied up in a particular detail of the argument

- Resolve the Paradox
Right Answer: Will make a statement that makes both event possible at the same time
4 Wrong Answers: Will make one event possible, will affect only one of the events and not necessarily make the other occur

- Method of Reasoning
Right Answer: Will tell you how the author structured the argument
4 Wrong Answers: Will bring in new info into the argument, or will give you only half of the story on how the author made the argument

- Flaw in the Reasoning
Right Answer: Will articulate what flaw the author committed
4 Wrong Answers: Will give you a description of a flaw that is not exhibited in the argument

- Parallel Reasoning
Right Answer: Will exhibit the same kind of reasoning whether flawed or not.
4 Wrong Answers: Will tweak the reasoning by adding more subjects to the argument, using modifier words, or missing the type of reasoning all together

- Principle Questions
Right Answer: Will give an idea that the argument can be based on. Kind of like the solid foundation for the argument
4 Wrong Answers: Will focus on a detail in the argument that the whole argument does not necessarily depend on

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noleknight16
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby noleknight16 » Mon Nov 14, 2011 11:12 pm

Inference questions need to be added to the list.

ExcelBaller
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby ExcelBaller » Tue Nov 15, 2011 12:00 am

I consider Inference questions and must be true to be the same. Which of the following can be inferred/must be true. Both answers must be proven by the stim

bp shinners
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby bp shinners » Thu Nov 17, 2011 1:40 pm

ExcelBaller wrote:I consider Inference questions and must be true to be the same. Which of the following can be inferred/must be true. Both answers must be proven by the stim


Yep, I'd agree with that.

I'd also add the following:
Non-diagrammable Inference question correct answers tend to be weak (since it's easier to prove Some than Most or All, and easier to prove Can than Probably or Will)
Sufficient Assumption question correct answers tend to be strong (since you have to get the argument to 100% valid)

Strengthen, Weaken, Sufficient, Necessary assumption questions are, essentially, Flaw + questions. In all of them, the first step should be to find the flaw/assumption.
Then:
Flaw - the answer describes it
Strengthen - the answer says the assumption is/might be true, or rules out another possible explanation
Weaken - the answer points out a way in which the assumption might not be true (or just points out the flaw)
Sufficient - the answer says (a version of) the assumption must be true
Necessary - the answer says the assumption might be true (or is true)

Parallel Reasoning also has another type - Parallel Flaw
Parallel Reasoning has a higher standard for a correct answer - all of the terms and logical force must line up.
Parallel Flaw has a lower standard for a correct answer - only the committed fallacy must line up

Principle questions can be broken up as well:
Principle Inference/MBT questions ("Which one of the following most closely conforms to the principle stated above?") - the stimulus has a general rule (the principle), and the answer choices will apply that rule to a specific situation
Parallel Principle ("The principle that guides the action above also guides which one of the following?") - the stimulus has a specific situation guided by a principle, and the correct answer choice will be a situation that is also guided by that principle
Strengthen Principle ("Which one of the following principles justifies the actions of Jessica?")- the stimulus has a situation, and the principle given in the correct answer choice justifies that action.
Last edited by bp shinners on Fri Jan 06, 2012 6:36 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Geetar Man
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby Geetar Man » Fri Dec 16, 2011 10:00 pm

Tag. Good info guys!

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naillsat
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby naillsat » Sat Dec 17, 2011 2:23 am

regarding Weaken questions, i dont think it is acceptable to attack the conclusion without weakening the the premise(s) or how the arguments reach the conclusion. what do you guys think?

ExcelBaller
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby ExcelBaller » Sat Dec 17, 2011 12:54 pm

In a weaken question the premise is saying why an event occurred what the author is assuming most of the time is that there is no other reason or cause for the event that is why you need to attack the assumption or conclusion. Like "he got in a car wreck therefore he was drinking and driving" we'll that's a big assumption to make with no other facts do attack the assumption or conclusion to weaken. Be like well what if he was texting or what of he was the one that didn't cause the wreck. This weakens the argument and is exactly what you want to do: attack the conclusion

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princeR
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby princeR » Thu Jan 05, 2012 7:46 pm

Can we maybe get some more input on this, maybe some other clues/identifiers that you guys are aware of.

ExcelBaller
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby ExcelBaller » Thu Jan 05, 2012 11:57 pm

princeR, pm me your email address I have some info I can email you that might help

tomwatts
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby tomwatts » Fri Jan 06, 2012 1:04 am

ExcelBaller wrote:- Sufficient Assumption
Right Answer: Will make the conclusion 100% possible
4 Wrong Answers: Will be beyond the scope, will make the sufficient for necessary mistake

I think "100% possible" doesn't quite capture it (unless by that you mean that the possibility of it being true is 100%). If the premises are true and the right answer is true, the conclusion must be true. If the premises are true and one of the wrong answers is true, usually the conclusion is possible, but not certain.

bp shinners
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Re: Characteristics of LR Answer Choices

Postby bp shinners » Fri Jan 06, 2012 6:36 pm

tomwatts wrote:
ExcelBaller wrote:- Sufficient Assumption
Right Answer: Will make the conclusion 100% possible
4 Wrong Answers: Will be beyond the scope, will make the sufficient for necessary mistake

I think "100% possible" doesn't quite capture it (unless by that you mean that the possibility of it being true is 100%). If the premises are true and the right answer is true, the conclusion must be true. If the premises are true and one of the wrong answers is true, usually the conclusion is possible, but not certain.


I was going to write up a long response explaining why I wrote possible, with the conclusion that it would have been more helpful to just say valid instead of possible. But that's not helpful, so point taken, I've edited my original post.




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