PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

secretad
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PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby secretad » Sun Apr 24, 2011 2:08 pm

Section 3

#4

I had it down to D and E. This is actually a concept I had created a topic about just days about and it came up on the test.

D) An author of a biography should be blamed for misleading readers only if facts are omitted to which the author alone had access when the biography was written.

Should be blamed ---> Facts omitted

Does this read..."If one should be blamed then facts omitted"

Or does it read "When we have a situation of one that should be blamed then facts omitted"

Because that is an issue that can undermine one's thinking on this question.

Also, should there be an emphasis on the wording of this answer choice? In this answer choice, it says "only if facts are omitted to which the author alone had access when the biography was written.

I wonder if that makes a difference?

E) An author of a biography should be blamed for readers' misperceptions caused by omitting facts that were widely available when the biography was written.

#15

I am having a hard time accepting the word useful in many of these answer choices. I am not sure if I can be given leeway to infer the word useful in this context.

The correct answer is A. I had it down to two answers, D and A.

Ashley states thats words such as "of" and "upon" do not refer to anything whereas "pencil" and "shirt" do.

Joshua says that he agrees. He also says that since such words are meaningless, they should be abandoned.

I really have not seen this question type before, so therefore I cannot classify it properly. The question stem states: Joshua's remarks indicate that he interpreted Ashley's statement to imply that:

I feel as if an argument could be made for C as well. I feel like he does think that Ashley implied that pencil and shirt are meaningful because they refer to something unlike "of" and "upon."

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510Chicken
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Re: PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby 510Chicken » Sun Apr 24, 2011 2:36 pm

secretad wrote:#4

Does this read..."If one should be blamed then facts omitted"

This. Because of the "only if".
secretad wrote:Also, should there be an emphasis on the wording of this answer choice? In this answer choice, it says "only if facts are omitted to which the author alone had access when the biography was written.

Yes. You can reject D off hand because it's overly specific. The prompt says "anyone" so you can't infer anything about "the author alone".

secretad wrote:#15

I am having a hard time accepting the word useful in many of these answer choices. I am not sure if I can be given leeway to infer the word useful in this context.

The correct answer is A. I had it down to two answers, D and A.
...
I feel as if an argument could be made for C as well. I feel like he does think that Ashley implied that pencil and shirt are meaningful because they refer to something unlike "of" and "upon."

John assumes: "If a word is meaningless, then it should be abandoned".

(A) For "of" and "upon" to meet the condition "meaningless", John must think that "not referring to anything" is the same as being "meaningless". It's a conditional: If no-reference then no-meaning.
(C) This is a false negation of the conditional in (A): If reference then meaning. But that doesn't tell us anything about objects that don't reference anything, which is what we care about.
(D) You don't have leeway with "useful", which isn't mentioned in the stimulus. Meaningful and useful are not the same thing so there's no way to connect the latter to the question.

secretad
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Re: PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby secretad » Sun Apr 24, 2011 4:32 pm

510Chicken wrote:This. Because of the "only if".

So which one would be the correct answer in this hypothetical scenario, 510Chicken?

If one should be blamed then facts omitted.

If facts omitted then one should be blamed.

I am having an issue deciding what would be the correct answer in a principle question with these two choices.

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510Chicken
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Re: PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby 510Chicken » Sun Apr 24, 2011 4:46 pm

"If the author should be blamed, then facts (available to the author alone) were omitted" is the proper way to express (D) (so the first one).

The other one flips the necessary/sufficient. Keep in mind that this order is an effect of "only if". If the statement didn't have the "only", then your second conditional would be the correct one instead. Also note that your second conditional is the correct answer to the actual problem (assuming facts omitted are available to everyone).

Again though, (D) is also wrong because of the excess specificity of "the author alone", which is probably the fastest way to eliminate this potential answer. I hope that helps.

EDIT: The passage wants to blame the author for omitting facts that were available. That means that omission needs to be the sufficient condition for blame. (D) makes it the necessary instead.

secretad
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Re: PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby secretad » Sun Apr 24, 2011 6:47 pm

510Chicken wrote:"If the author should be blamed, then facts (available to the author alone) were omitted" is the proper way to express (D) (so the first one).

The other one flips the necessary/sufficient. Keep in mind that this order is an effect of "only if". If the statement didn't have the "only", then your second conditional would be the correct one instead. Also note that your second conditional is the correct answer to the actual problem (assuming facts omitted are available to everyone).

Again though, (D) is also wrong because of the excess specificity of "the author alone", which is probably the fastest way to eliminate this potential answer. I hope that helps.

EDIT: The passage wants to blame the author for omitting facts that were available. That means that omission needs to be the sufficient condition for blame. (D) makes it the necessary instead.


Yes! The last part you addressed is what I am after. I absolutely understand the impact of what only if means in a conditional sense.

Here is my example in an earlier thread of this exact situation.

"The police officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon. That police officer was rightfully punished."

What principle would help to justify the officer's actions?

Let us say that you eliminate all but two answers and these are the ones you are left with during the test.

A) An officer should be punished only if the officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon.

B) An officer should be punished if the officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon.

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510Chicken
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Re: PrepTest 31 LR Questions I have

Postby 510Chicken » Sun Apr 24, 2011 7:20 pm

secretad wrote:Yes! The last part you addressed is what I am after. I absolutely understand the impact of what only if means in a conditional sense.

Here is my example in an earlier thread of this exact situation.

"The police officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon. That police officer was rightfully punished."

What principle would help to justify the officer's actions?

Let us say that you eliminate all but two answers and these are the ones you are left with during the test.

A) An officer should be punished only if the officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon.

B) An officer should be punished if the officer shot a person that clearly was without a weapon.


(B) is correct, I believe. It's the same kind of question. It looks like the prompt is trying to say that it is because the police officer shot someone without a weapon that he should be punished. That sets up a conditional: If "shoot someone unarmed", then "punish". This makes the shooting sufficient for the consequences.

Technically, (A) could still be consistent with the prompt, but it is not the BEST choice because it makes the shooting the necessary condition and you don't have enough information to proceed if that is the case (there may be other constraints that determine rightful punishment in such a world).

So, (B) is enough to answer the prompt. (A) requires additional information that isn't provided, which makes it an inferior choice.




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